Students are admitted to the PhD program following attainment of an undergraduate or Master of Science degree in environmental engineering. Doctoral studies consist of courses selected with the assistance of a supervisor, successful completion of a preliminary and a qualifying examination, and an independent research culminating in a thesis. A minimum of eight registration semester is required for the Ph.D. Attainment of the PhD of Environmental Engineering degree requires completion of 60 ECTS unit elective courses in the Environmental Engineering program within two semesters of enrollment. During the second year, student must pass an oral preliminary examination focusing on the student’s ability to orally demonstrate mastery of and ability to apply core knowledge in the major area of research. All PhD candidates are expected to present at least one seminar on their research. It generally takes 4-5 years to complete a PhD after earning a Master's degree.